Worldwide, a combination of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration is the most widely … For flocculation, the mixing usually occurs in gently stirred compartments. Principle of bridging flocculation and protective effect of macromolecule. (a) Flocculation and (b) protection. Other articles where Flocculation test is discussed: serological test: …types of serological tests—for example, flocculation tests, neutralization tests, hemagglutinin-inhibition tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and chemiluminescence immunoassays. Chitosan-based flocculants are further discussed by Yang et al. Many water treatment plants use a combination of coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection to provide clean, safe drinking water to the public. The coagulation-flocculation processes facilitate the removal of SS and colloidal particles. flocculation and sedimentation to remove the colloidal particles in the water. Coagulation-flocculation is a chemical water treatment technique typically applied prior to sedimentation and filtration (e.g. [68]. Through extensive jar testing an optimal time can be found. Flocculation mechanism: • Principle: • Removal of Hydrophobic Colloids from the Aqueous Phase. Review the documents for the Research phase of the FRAME engineering design model. Under the action of direct current, the anode is corroded to produce Al and Fe plasma. The reaction principle of electro-flocculation is to use metals such as aluminum and iron as anodes. Flocculation mechanism: • Flocculants, with their very high molecular weights (long monomer chain ) and their charge content, fix the destabilized particles and aggregates along the polymer chain. The amount of chemical you use is an important consideration for a green engineer. Flocculation with cationic starch is discussed by Vandamme et al. The formation of flocs aids in improved settling rates, better overhead clarity and/or faster filtration rates. Now that you have completed this portion of the research phase, it is time to 8. It’s used in the first stage of solids-liquids separation: settling, flotation or filtration . Coagulation is the destabilization of colloidal particles brought about by the addition of a chemical reagent called as coagulant. 5.1.2 Inorganic flocculants [27]. After a series of hydrolysis, polymerization and ferrous oxidation processes, it develops into various hydroxyl groups. The flocculation process is also affected by pH, salts, alkalinity, turbidity, temperature and degree of mixing. Common designs based on the flocculation principle are the horizontal reel and another one is the turbine mixer . The flocculation efficiency of cationic polymers such as chitosan is highly dependent on pH with a pH of 7 being optimal for flocculation in low salinity media [67]. 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