_________. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1990. She envisions God in feminine images (ch. Off the Menu: Asian and Asian North American Women’s Religion and Theology. Conscious of the multicultural, multi-religious context on which Asian feminist theology is standing, Chung asserts that Asian feminist theology always needs to risk the “survival-liberation centered syncretism” through interreligious dialogue to move from “doctrinally pure Christianity” (113). Asian American feminism, politics, and pop culture. I must also, as it were, speak softly with my head bowed. New York, Columbia University Press, 1994. Kwok Pui-lan’s study, Postcolonial Imagination and Feminist Theology, is an important addition to this field, interfacing between feminist and postcolonial studies. The Grace of Sophia: A Korean North American Women’s Christology. Retaining awareness of these prior liberation contexts, most Asian feminist theologians in the third stage formulate their theological reflections with postcolonial sensitivity. By incorporating race, class, and cultural issues along with gender concerns, a transcendent feminist consciousness that goes beyond these boundaries may develop. Wong argues that a similar plot is found in the discourse of Asian feminist theologians, especially Kwok and Chung when they represent Asian women as the poor women who are victims of oppression but heroines fighting for freedom and emancipation. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. from the “who” question, who is Asian? New York: P. Lang, 2002. In the first and second stages, Asianness was represented through the figure of poor women, and was used as a general and important icon by Asian feminist theologians in order to emphasize their difference from the West. Although some Asian American women have partici- pated in social movements within their communities or in the larger society, building ties with white feminists and other women of color is a recent phenomenon for Asian American women. Feminism without Borders: Decolonizing Theory, Practicing Solidarity. So, in the end, one must ask whether Orientalism is racism. Unlike female theologians from other parts of the world who name their theologies differently from (white) feminist Theology—womanist theology (by African-American women), mujerista theology (by Hispanic women in the United States)— etc., women theologians from Asia do not categorize their theologies in any way other than Asian feminist theology. Certain Asian feminist essays begin with confessions of faith, e.g. To launch Black and Asian Feminist Solidarities, leaders from Black Women Radicals and the Asian American Feminist Collective each reflected on books that have shaped, catalyzed, and transformed their understandings and practices of solidarity. Gender and Society To navigate this site, click the links below in the following order: 1. www.sagepublishing.com, This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. For many Asian American feminists, the question of what Asian American feminism even is and why it is needed thus often arises. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. Casting Stones: Prostitution and. level 1. While the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians (EATWOT), founded in Dar-es Salaam, Tanzania in 1976, was consciously aware of questions of race and culture, third- world women challenged and resisted the lack of attention to gender in third -world theologies by male theologians who longed for women to be where they should be. Inspired by both liberation theology and feminist theology, it aims to contextualize them to the conditions and experiences of Asian women. Report Save. Barkley continues, “We are likely to acknowledge that white middle-class women have had a different experience from African American, Latina, Asian American, and Native American women; but the fact that these histories exist simultaneously, in dialogue with each other, is seldom apparent in the studies we do. Twenty-one selections examine the collective experience and Western feminist … As a concept, however, “Asianness” becomes intensely contested when Asian feminist theologians are involved in poststructuralist critiques of identity politics and postcolonial critiques of the politics of representation. Hi would suggest that people check out real procreate dot Co or jen thing has been blogging about Asian American feminism and issues since that two thousand two otherwise I would check out the feminism on twitter and just reaching the combos growing up in the midwest blogs such as re appropriate I'm websites and organizations like the Asian American writers workshop … Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. 8,9). 1. Not all Asian American men do this, and there are many Asian American activists who try to address the stereotype of the “effeminate” Asian man without resorting to toxic masculinity. In Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People, Helen Zia quotes 1800s orator Horace Greely, who summed up these stereotypes by saying, “The Chinese are uncivilized, unclean, and filthy… lustful and sensual in their dispositions.” Brock, Rita Nakashima and Susan B. Thistlewaite. Hyun Hui Kim Method: We examined feminist orientations among 1,140 undergraduates (70% women) at a Hispanic-Serving Institution who identified as African American, Asian American, European American, or Latina/o. Reflecting the strong class consciousness of all three women, Merle Woo read from her “Letter to My Mother,” a chronicle of anger, hope, and determination distilling the experience of an Asian American feminist. “South Asian Feminisms is a timely addition to the existing scholarship regarding feminist endeavors on the ground in South Asia, as well as the theoretical work that has emerged from engaging with particular South Asian sites, be they historical archives or … Paying attention to Chandra Talpade Mohanty’s critique of construction of Third World women in terms of  “a singular monolithic subject in contrast to First World feminists” (“Under Western Eyes: Feminist Women and the Politics of Feminism,” 1991: 51-80), Wong articulates the limitation of the monolithic representation of Asian women in the figure of  “the poor women” who are involved in the narratives of suffering and liberation; this figure represents Asian women as a uniform group and oversimplifies or romanticizes Asian women’s experiences. The name highlights the difference between international and transnational conceptions of feminism, and favours the latter.As a feminist approach, it can be said that transnational feminism is generally attentive to intersections among nationhood, race, gender, sexuality and economic exploitation on a world … In the field of theological studies, feminist theologies emerging from Asia—the so-called Asian Feminist Theologies—seem to be controversial even in name, because the term, “feminist,” connotes their as having been promoted by middle-class European and American women (Kwok Pui-lan, 2005:7). In this book, the necessity to describe the female divine image, especially as Mother is also asserted, but it complements and balances the image as Father, thus resulting in adding the expression of the feminine facets of the divine who is traditionally viewed as male, rather than to articulate the fullness of divine power exposed in a female image. Kim, Grace Ji-Sun. It is notable that most Asian feminist theology in this stage engages in the conversation with diverse theories including postcolonial theory, poststructuralist theory, psychoanalysis, and political feminist hermeneutics, seeking interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary studies. In the first stage of feminist Asian theology, constructing “Asianness” as a collective identity for Asian women as different from that of Western women was the most significant agenda in the context of decolonization of Asia after the Second World War. “Re-constructing Asian Feminist Theology: toward a glocal Feminist Theology in an era of neo-Empire(s).” In Christian Theology in Asia. This is freelance writer Suey Park, an advocate for the Asian-American feminist and queer communities. Manila: Institute of Women’s Studies, 1993. Just as Katoppo represents herself as a Christian in the theological reflection, authors in the book assert their work as “theologizing in the light of our Christian faith” (xi). As is revealed in the argument of Kwok and Joh, “Asianness” surfaces as a contesting issue in the third stage when Asian feminist theologians deploy the poststructuralist and postcolonial challenges regarding the concept of the subject. Russell, Letty M. et al.ed. Katoppo, Marianne. Compassionate and Free: An Asian Woman’s Theology. Their activism in transnational organizations often gave them a voice they did not have at home. Many women got sick of the strict home life that had been implicated on them by men. PhD Student in Theological and Philosophical Studies. For discussions of the "new" Asian American feminism, see Karin Aguilar-San Juan, "Foreword: Breathing Fire, Confronting Power, and Other Necessary Acts of Resistance," in Dragon Ladies, ix-xi; Alethea Vip, "Two Movements in One," Asianweek (28 Mar. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. UK & New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. African Studies Institute The mission of the African Studies Institute is to advance the international aspects of teaching, research, public service and outreach missions and to enrich the learning environment of its students, the primary goals of the Institute embrace the enhancement of the teaching of courses with a rich African content, initiation of new courses and degree programs in African Studies, collaboration in research opportunities in and about Africa, … The work of these three and other Black women shows how Black community politics laid the foundation for social justice toward sexism from Black men, marginalization from White feminists, and disenfranchisement under White male privilege 2 . Kwok critically probes a history of the missionary movement and exposes the ambivalent effects of Christianity on Asian women. New York: Fordham University Press, 2011. London & Oakville: Equinox, 2011. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1996. Fabella, Virginia and Mercy Amba Oduyoye eds. Start studying Asian American Movement. Are you talking about Asian American feminism? In late April, Black Women Radicals and Asian American Feminist Collective held a conversation on both historical tensions and solidarities between Black and Asian communities and recently published a reading list addressing anti-Blackness within Asian communities, building solidarities, and histories of movement building. Rethinking Feminist Ideals: The Voices of Asian American Women. This open access article may be used, reproduced, distributed, and displayed for personal study, teaching, and research and scholarship, provided that you retain with the article its title, the name of the author(s), a reference to these Terms of Use, and any copyright notice included on the original. Seeking to generate an epistemological shift for Asian feminist theology in the complicate space of globalization, Kwok employs the concept of hybridization—a popular postcolonial concept—in her book in order to deconstruct monotheistic, imperialistic, and androcentric western theology and western feminist theology which universalize white women’s experiences. Menu. Last night, she scheduled a Twitter hashtag to open a conversation about Asian-American feminism. Since its emergence in the last quarter of the twentieth century, Asian feminist theology has developed dramatically. Analysis. It is more appropriate to say they are unable to rather than ‘do-not,’ because there is no language or concept in common they can share when standing in multiracial, multilingual, multicultural, and multi-religious contexts. Latin American feminism, which in this entry includes Caribbean feminism, ... At present, there is not a settled definition of feminist autonomy, but rather a pluralism of understanding that tracks a variety of proposals for understanding feminist … London & New York: SPCK & Orbis Press, 1994. Most inspired by the effort to contextualize theology, the book postulates shared experiences by Third World women of struggles caused by collective realities of the history of centuries of rooted colonialism and missionary paternalism. Select the purchase London: Zed, 1989. My research focuses on collective Asian/American politics, building solidarities, and the role of digital technologies in shaping racial politics—one of my current projects has been using archival research to trace out a genealogy of women of color feminist networks, coalitions, and alliances, which has helped me also think a lot about the past, present, and future of Asian American feminism. Hong Kong: Asian Women’s Resource Centre for Culture and Theology and Women’s Commission of the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians, 1989. The answer to this question demands not only a definition of Orientalism — as I have provided here — but also a redefinition of racism, itself. Japan’s first movement for civil rights emerged in the 1870s, and a small number of women were part of it. She traces the discourse of the indigenous identity construction, especially the ideological construction of women’s identity based on a “material/spiritual distinction” within nationalist politics and agendas. Joh’s view of the Cross, standing on “interstitial space,” is embodied in the Korean term, jeong, a form of “sticky love” as way of living into deep relationality and han, a woundedness, both of which reflect two different sides of the same heart, not an oppositional conceptual dyad. “[feminism] does not mean separatism, either by separating myself off from non-Asians or men … In Wong’s perspective, they do emphasize differences, but such differences share the “single roof of a poor and oppressed Asia” in which multiplicity is conceived as a category distinguishing it from the presumed homogeneous west. They represent themselves as exclusively Christian, and their theology is Christocentric. The American writer and activist penned The Feminine Mystique in 1963, which is often credited for sparking the second wave of feminism that began in the '60s and '70s. These are the people who by definition cannot rule, whose actions can try to subvert the hierarchy but cannot change it or overthrow it. As Chung describes poverty as a reality of “Asianness” under neo-colonialism, poor women and their lives are taken as the most significant texts, and their experiences viewed as profound foundations for the methodologies by which Asian feminist theology undertakes its work. Along with Braidotti’s work, Asian feminist theology can deepen their discourse on identity politics and the dilemma of “speaking as” Asian women while being aware of that the “subject women is not a monolithic essence, defined once and for all, but rather the site of multiple, complex and potentially contradictory sets of experiences, defined by overlapping variables such as class, race, age, lifestyle, sexual preference” (Nomadic Subject: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contemporary Feminist Theory 1994: 25). Liberation in Asia and the United States. Asian American women are also prominent in ACT UP, an organization committed to solving the AIDS epidemic by utilizing civil disobedience, and various LGBTQAI organizations as well. They articulated their deep concern stating, “neither Third world men nor First world women can determine the Third world women’s agenda.” (Virginia Fabella 1993: 35). Modern Asian American feminism. In their discussions, the authors focus on the status and progress of Korean American women in contemporary society. Thus, each essay includes a letter in the author’s mother’s tongue at the end of each essay. Between 1970 and 1980, a Chicana feminist movement developed in the United States that addressed the specific issues that affected Chicanas as women of color. Kang finally turns toward constructing cosmopolitan theology, which is theology of “trans-identity, “trans-religious solidarity,” and thus “boundary-transcending solidarity.”  What she really emphasizes here through trans-identity politics is the internal multiplicity of identity. Introducing Asian Feminist Theology. Asian/American feminism is an ever-evolving practice that seeks to address the multi-dimensional ways Asian/American people confront systems of power at the intersections of race, gender, class, sexuality, religion, disability, migration … The unintended implication emerges from this position: that there are feminine aspects in the male God. The subaltern are people who are not part of the dominant power structure of society. Also notable is the Asian feminist theologians’ commitment to Christianity. Wong, Wai-Ching Angela. Because Asian feminism certainly exists. policies being pursued by the American. Asian feminist theology arose in reaction to liberation theologies in various regions, and began to be fostered in response to political and economic predicaments caused by the interference of North American and European institutions and corporations under the name of “progress,” when Asian countries began to achieve independence after World War II. With Passion and Compassion: Third World Women Doing Theology: Reflections from the Women’s Commission of the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians. “Out of Places: Asian Feminist Theology of Dislocation.” In Out of Place: Doing Theology on the Crosscultural Brink, edited by Jione Havea and Clive Pearson, 105-128. For these theologians, no matter whether they stand on the side of strategic essentialism or anti-essentialism, the concept of hybridity is a constructive alternative to conventional concepts of identities, which are fixed and frozen. Starting with me! Drawing on postcolonial theorists, Edward Said, Homi K. Bhabha, Gayatri C. Spivak, and Trinh Minh-Ha, in her essay, “Who/What is Asian? In this regard, ‘Third World women’ in this book include African, Asian, and Latin American women. Sara Miller McCune founded SAGE Publishing in 1965 to support the dissemination of usable knowledge and educate a global community. : A Postcolonial Theological Reading of Orientalism and Neo-Orientalism,” Kang challenges not only essentialized subjects limited in the frame of a “strong we-they binarism” which, for her, also involves self-orientalizing, but also the tendency of feminist theology’s objectification of Asian women. Heart of the Cross: A Postcolonial Christology. Choi, Hee An. In the ground-breaking first book focusing on Asian feminist theology, Compassionate and Free: An Asian Woman’s Theology, Marianne Katoppo, an Indonesian theologian, articulates her experiences of the entanglement of three constrictive elements—being Asian, Christian, and a woman—in constructing her identity, which she directly expresses in the form of, “I am,” “I am an Asian,” “I am a Christian,” “I am a woman” (Marianne Katoppo 1980: 1-6). East Asian men were stereotyped as cunning men with insatiable desires. _________. What did Asian American movement promote over any other movement Collective leadership-leaders would constantly rotate and there wasn't a main … In its second stage, Asian feminist theology played an important role in incarnating and embodying Christian theology into local women’s context while critically re-reading their patriarchal religious traditions and disclosing significant symbols, images, and stories in their diverse traditions of shamanism, Confucianism, Buddhism, and Hinduism. Asian American Feminist Collective @aafcollective Sep. 13, 2020 1 min read As a special bonus feature in our ongoing Black & Asian Feminist Solidarities project w/ @blkwomenradical, @lynnshon & @TheJLV write about the long-standing inequities in NYC public schools and the stakes of rushed re-opening. ________. ‘There are essays by a Latina feminist and an Asian American feminist.’ ‘The Asian American literary movement is one of the most remarkable in American literary history.’ Word of the day King, Ursula. After a sustained struggle, third- world women’s efforts finally resulted in the Women’s Commission within EATWOT in 1983, in response to the foundational question, “What does doing feminist theology in our own context mean?”  In the initial struggles by Asian women as well as by womanists, noteworthy was their double differentiation from both western feminist theology and the male liberation theology of their respective countries. Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development. Indian (South Asian) feminist theology, however, is excluded from this research because it has developed on a different trajectory, particularly working broadly toward ecofeminism. _________. All Rights Reserved. They are also aware of the impact of intersections of diversity in socially and culturally constructed categories—sexuality, class, race, ethnicity, and nationality and religiosity— in shaping the lives and experiences of women, rather than deploying gender as the primary axis of power. South Asian Feminisms: Contemporary Interventions / Ania Loomba and Ritty A. Lukose 1 I. Feminism, Religion, and the Secular From Shah Bano to Kausar Bano: Contextualizing the "Muslim Woman" within a Communalized Polity / Flavia Agnes 33 Global Discourses, Situated Traditions, and Muslim Women's Agency in Pakistan / Amina Jamal 54 Wells, an activist and journalist, led a crusade against lynching during the 1890s. We Asian Americans support all oppressed peoples … We Asian Americans oppose the imperialistic. My research focuses on collective Asian/American politics, building solidarities, and the role of digital technologies in shaping racial politics—one of my current projects has been using archival research to trace out a genealogy of women of color feminist networks, coalitions, and alliances, which has helped me also think a lot about the past, present, and future of Asian American feminism. An intellectual development with profound spiritual, psychological, and political implications, it shares with Christian theology in general the classic aim of "faith seeking understanding," but is distinguished by two … Beyond Bonding: A Third World Women’s Theological Journey. Kang, Namsoon. Mohanty, Chandra T. “Under Western Eyes: Feminist Women and the Politics of Feminism,” In Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, edited by Chandra T. Mohanty, Ann Russo, and Lourdes Torres, 51-80. Muriel, Orevillo-Montenegro. Joh, Wonhee Anne. 2). Since the feminist theological consciousness first emerged in Asia, it has remained important to make clear the differences in Asian women’s perspectives regarding their personal histories and sufferings. Is Orientalism racist? Chung’s description of Asian feminist theology exposes the methodological emphasis; Asian feminist theology is a “cry, a plea and an invocation” to God “not written with a pen,” but rather, “inscribed on the hearts” of Asian women (99-100). __________. Rita Nakashima Brock, Anne Joh, and Grace Ji-Sun Kim). That is, when the issue is shifted from religious diversity grounded in the “liberal paradigm of religious pluralism” to “religious difference as it is constructed and produced in concrete situations, often with significant power differentials” (205), Christianity, automatically assumed as the superior expression of faith for centuries, is destabilized. This is Alexandria Cowan’s final project for ENGL 474: Asian American Women’s Writing at Texas A&M University. However, in the book, The Poor Women, Wong Wai Ching, a Chinese theologian, critically contributes to the rhetoric of “the poor women” in Asian feminist theology by using a feminist postcolonial critique of the construction of women’s identity in the postcolonial Asian context. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 2000. That is, on the one hand, they were aware of patriarchy in their indigenous cultures and religions that had been reinforced by Christianity, which provided emancipatory implications in Jesus Christ. Asian American Feminisms and Women of Color Politics brings together groundbreaking essays that speak to the relationship between Asian American feminisms, feminist of color work, and transnational feminist scholarship. 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